Mozambique’s strong performance is gaining recognition regionally and internationally, despite initial constraints of vaccine supply, in-country delivery, and local acceptance.

Dramatic progress

In April 2021, only 2% of the target population aged 18 and over had received one or more doses. Almost a year later, 95% of those over 18 years have received at least one dose, and 88% are fully vaccinated. Sufficient vaccines have been secured through COVAX, bilateral donations and government resources to cover the remaining population over 18 and to administer boosters. Booster coverage of targeted groups is 99%. Later in 2022, with international support (COVAX, USAID, UNICEF), the country will acquire the cold chain necessary to allow vaccination of 12–17-year-olds.



Figure 1: Mozambique’s rapid vaccination scale-up compared to Africa and other low-income countries; Source: Our World in Data

Five elements stand out among the many contributing factors and stakeholders:

High-level leadership and governance at all levels

The President and Council of Ministers approved the National Covid-19 Vaccination Plan and had weekly progress updates; the Minister of Health led daily health team meetings to review progress, resolve issues and identify actions; provincial leadership was actively involved at the sub-national level. In addition to governance, this engagement was critical to mobilising resources.

Strong coordination structure

The Immunisation Department led the vaccination drive; as vaccine supply increased, a campaign director was appointed to lead mass vaccination efforts. While internal coordination was strong, there remain opportunities to strengthen the flow of information with health partners as this has been constrained by the pace of activities and pressures on those involved.

Covid-19 planning & data and monitoring task force 

The team was responsible for the continuous review of plans and (re-)prioritisation of populations – with an eye on equity, vulnerability, vaccine quantities, and expiry. Data packs were produced for the Minister’s daily reviews with health teams as well as information for the website.

Commitment and active involvement of health partners

In addition to the efforts of Gavi and COVAX, Mozambique’s health partners were active advocates, donating vaccines, providing critical resources, and promoting open discussion about data.

Communication task force

The task force met evolving communication demands for different phases of the vaccination drive. Rapid assessments informed the design of innovative approaches to swiftly combat rumours and misinformation.

Mozambique is now focused on scaling-up access and reducing sub-national inequities further.


Figure 2: Map of national coverage of target groups (taken from the national vaccine tracker tool developed with OCG and Gavi support)

Until recently, Mozambique’s Covid-19 vaccination rollout was challenged by the irregular availability of vaccines, compounded by short expiry dates, multiple types of vaccine, and little forward guidance. While these issues placed pressure on already limited resources, improvements in vaccine supply eased the path to a successful rollout.

In the coming months, the system is shifting focus to tackle two new challenges:

Sustaining access

Strategic actions to safeguard routine immunisation whilst integrating Covid-19 vaccinations into the national schedule; delivering booster shots, vaccinating underage people, forecasting needs, and tackling the fact that people get tired of Covid-19-related actions.

Reducing inequities at subnational level

There remains disparity among districts in both low and high-performing provinces.

Mozambique’s experience demonstrates that even if the environment is challenging, good management, leadership and coordination can ensure the rapid rollouts and high quality of vaccination.


Mauro Cuna, Antonio Sambo, Kate Brownlow & Ahmed Razzak